Islam started here in Egypt around the 7th century by the leader of the army Amr Ibn El Ass. Amr came all the way from Saudi ordered by the majour caliph Omar ben el khatab. He erected his first capital & mosque in Egypt and all Africa. the 1st Islamic Capital in Egypt called Fustat, where we have the Coptic Cairo area.https://ankhtours.com/trip/egyptian-museum-coptic-cairo-citadel/
The 2nd and 3rd period named Abbasid period, Ahmed El Ekhshidi, and Ibn Toloun dynasties :out of the 2 there is only one remains of Ibn Toloun which considered as the most ancient remains the same since construction date.
The Fatimid period was the 4th Islamic dynasty from Moroccan origin, so they erected the old city of Cairo and surrounded it with high walls, Towers, and gates. A copy of the old city of Marakesh, the main city mosque named Al Azhar.
By the end of the Fatimid period the crusaders war I started so Salahdin Came to Egypt to fight them then attacked the Fatimids and ditched them out of Egypt, started his Auypid period and built alot of fortifications around the whole country. The main for was in Cairo called the citadel of Salahdin.https://ankhtours.com/trip/egyptian-museum-coptic-cairo-citadel/
Mamlouk period followed Salahdin, they were from different European origin, they founded their capitals in Cairo as they remained for 2 different dynasties, they built ones of the best madrasa, houses and complexes too.
The Ottoman period was almost all over the world back to that period from 1517 A.D. Turks were invading the whole world back then.
Turkish period left us alot of very nice and fine mosques which are around Islamic Cairo area.
By the end of the Turkish period we were sent Mohamed Ali the Albanian leader, who took very good care of the education, Egyptian irrigation canals, agriculture, and infrastructure and we call him the founder of modern Egypt, He built a very nice mosque in the citadel. Mohamed ali’s period was the last so-called Islamic period.